Makalah Hukum Pasar Modal Syariah Yang Benar

Makalah Hukum Pasar Modal Syariah
Makalah Hukum Pasar Modal Syariah

Makalah Hukum Pasar Modal Syariah Yang Benar

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BAB I

PENDAHULUAN

1.Latar Belakang

Dalam Islam investasi merupakan kegiatan muamalah yang sangat dianjurkan, karena dengan berinvestasi harta yang dimiliki menjadi produktif dan juga mendatangkan manfaat bagi orang lain. Al-Qur’an dengan tegas melarang aktivitas penimbunan (iktinaz) terhadap harta yang dimiliki.Untuk mengimplementasikan seruan investasi tersebut, maka harus diciptakan suatu sarana untuk berinvestasi.Banyak pilihan orang menanamkan modalnya dalam bentuk investasi.Salah satu bentuk investasi adalah menanamkan hartanya di pasar modal. Berdasarkan hal diatas, maka dalam makalah ini akan membahas tentang pasar modal syariah.[1]

2. Rumusan Masalah

  1. Apa pengertian pasar modal syariah dan dasar hukum pasar modal syariah?
  2. Bagaimana sejarah dan perkembangan pasar modal di Indonesia?
  3. Apa saja instrumen pasar modal syariah?
  4. Siapa saja pihak-pihak yang terlibat di pasar modal syariah?
  5. Apa saja manfaat, peran dan fungsi pasar modal syariah?

BAB II

PEMBAHASAN

1.Pengertian Pasar Modal Syariah dan Dasar Hukum Pasar Modal Syariah

  1. Pengertian pasar modal syariah

Pengertian pasar modal secara umum merupakan suatu tempat bertemunya para penjual dan pembeli untuk melakukan transaksi dalam rangka memperoleh modal.Penjual dalam pasar modal merupakan perusahaan yang membutuhkan modal (emiten), sehingga mereka berusaha untuk menjual efek-efek dipasar modal.Sedangkan pembeli (investor) adalah pihak yang ingin membeli modal diperusahaan yang menurut mereka menguntungkan.[2]Jadi, pasar modal (capital market) merupakan pasar untuk berbagai instrument keuangan jangka panjang yang bisa diperjual belikan, baik dalam bentuk utang(obligasi) maupun modal sendiri (saham).[3]

Pasar modal syariah merupakan pasar modal yang diharapkan mampu menjalankan fungsi yang sama dengan pasar modal konvensional, namun dengan kekhususan syariahnya yaitu mencerminkan keadilan dan pemerataan distribusi keuntungan. Setiap kegiatan pasar modal syariah berhubungan dengan perdagangan efek syariah, perusahaan publik yang berkaitan dengan efek yang diterbitkan, serta lembaga profesi yang berkaitan dengannya, dimana produk dan mekanisme operasionalnya berjalan tidak bertentangan dengan hukum muamalat islamiah. Setiap transaksi surat berharga di pasar modal syariah dilaksanakan sesuai dengan ketentuan syariat Islam. Pasar modal syariah idealnya dikarateriasasi oleh ketiadaan transaksi berbasis bunga, transaksi meragukan dan saham perusahaan yang berbisnis pada aktivitas dan barang haram, serta adanya upaya yang sistematis menjadikan produk syariah sebagai sarana mewujudkan tujuan syariah di bidang ekonomi dan keuangan.[4]

1. Dasar hukum pasar modal syariah

  1. Firman Allah SWT., antara lain:

واَحلَّ اللّة البيع وحرّمم الرّبا

“…dan Allah menghalalkan jual beli dan mengharamkan riba…”

 (QS. al-Baqarah [2]: 275).

ياايها الذين امنوا لا تا كلوا اموالكم بينكم با لباطل الاّ ان تكو ن تجا ر ة عن ترا

 ض منكم ….

“Hai orang yavng beriman! Janganlah kamu saling memakan harta sesamamu dengan jalan yang batil, kecuali dengan dengan jalan perniagaan yang berlaku dengan suka sama suka di antara kamu,…” (QS. al-Nisa’ [4]: 29).

  1. Hadis Nabi s.a.w., antara lain:

عن ابي  هريرة قال نهي رسول الله عليه وسلمم عن بيع الحصاة وعن بيع الغرر

Diriwayatkan dari Abi Hurairah r.a, ia berkata, Rasulullah s.a.w. melarang jual beli hashah dan jual beli yang mengandung gharar” (HR. Muslim).

عن حكيم بن حزام قال اتيت رسول الله: فقلت يا تيني الرجل يسالني من البيع ما ليس عندي

ابتا ع له من السوق ثم ابيعه قال لا تبع ما ليس عندك

Diriwayatkan dari Hakim bin Hizam, ia berkata: Saya menemui Rasulullah saw, lalu berkata : Seorang laki-laki datang kepadaku meminta agar saya menjual suatu barang yang tidak ada pada saya, saya akan membelikan untuknya di pasar kemudian saya menjualnya kepada orang tersebut. Rasulullah saw. menjawab: “Janganlah kamu menjual sesuatu yang tidak ada padamu” (HR. Tirmidzi/V, 139)

عن معمر بن عبد اللهعن رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم قالل: لا تحتكر الا خا طي

“Dari Ma’mar bin Abdullah, dari Rasulullah SAW bersabda: Tidaklah melakukan ihtikar (penimbunan/monopoli) kecuali orang yang bersalah” (HR Muslim).

  1. Kaidah Fiqh:

الأ صل في المعاملات الابا حة ما لم يدل دليل علي تحريمها

“Pada dasarnya, segala bentuk mu’amalah boleh dilakukan sepanjang tidak ada dalil yang mengharamkannya.”

لا يجوز لأحد ان يتصر ف في ملك الغير بلا اذنه

“Tidak boleh melakukan perbuatan hukum atas milik orang lain tanpa seizinnya.”[5]

2. Sejarah dan Perkembangan Pasar Modal Syariah di Indonesia

  1. Sejarah pasar modal syariah di Indonesia

Sejarah pasar modal syariah di Indonesia dimulai dengan diterbitkannya Reksa Dana Syariah oleh PT. Danareksa Investment Management pada 3 Juli 1997. Selanjutnya, Bursa Efek Indonesia bekerja sama dengan PT. Danareksa Investment Management meluncurkan Jakarta Islamic Index pada tanggal 3 Juli 2000 yang bertujuan untuk memandu investor yang ingin menginvestasikan dananya secara syariah. Dengan hadirnya indeks tersebut para pemodal telah disediakan saham-saham yang dapat dijadikan sarana berinvestasi sesuai dengan prinsip syariah.

Pada tanggal 18 April 2001, untuk pertama kalinya, Dewan Syariah Nasional Majelis Ulama Indonesia (DSN-MUI) mengeluarkan fatwa yang berkaitan langsung dengan pasar modal, yaitu Fatwa Nomor 20/DNS-MUI/IV/2001 tentang pedoman pelaksanaan investasi untuk Reksa Dana Syariah. Selanjutnya, instrument investasi syariah dipasar modal terus bertambah dengan kehadiran obligasi syariah PT. Indosat Tbk pada awal September 2002.Instrument ini merupakan obligasi syariah pertama dan akad yang digunakan adalah akad mudharabah.

Sejarah pasar modal syariah juga dapat ditelusuri dari perkembangan institusional yang terlibat dalam pengaturan pasar modal syariah tersebut.Perkembangan tersebut dimulai dari MoU antara Bapepam dan DSN-MUI pada tanggal 14 Maret 2003, MoU menunjukkan adanya kesepahaman antara Bapepam dan DSN-MUI untuk mengembangkan pasar modal berbasis syariah di Indonesia.[6]

  1. Perkembangan pasar modal syariah di Indonesia

Menurut Andri Soemitra,secara historis, pasar modal telah hadirjauh sebelum Indonesia merdeka, yaitu sejak zaman colonial Belanda dan tepatnya pada tahun 1912 di Batavia. Pasar modal ketika itu didirikan oleh pemerintah Hindia-Belanda untuk kepentingan pemerintah colonial atau VOC. Perkembangan pasar modal di Indonesia dapat dilihat sebagai berikut:

1)14 Desember 1912: Bursa efek pertama di Indonesia dibentuk fi Batavia oleh pemerintah Hindia-Belanda.

2) 1914-1918: Bursa efek di Batavia ditutup selama Perang Dunia I.

3) 1925-1942: Bursa efek di Jakarta dibuka kembali bersama dengan bursa efek di Semarang dan Surabaya.

4)  Awal tahun 1939: karena isu politik (Perang Dunia II), bursa efek di Semarang dan Surabaya di tutup.

5) 1942-1952: Bursa efek di Jakarta ditutup kembali selama Perang Dunia II.

6)1952: Bursa efek di Jakarta diaktifkan kembali dengan UU Darurat Pasar Modal 1952, yang dikeluarkan oleh menteri kehakiman (Lukman Wiradinata) dan menteri keuangan (Prof.Dr. Sumitro Djojohadikusumo). Instrumen yang diperdagangkan: obligasi Pemerintah RI (1950).

7)  1956: Program nasionalisasi perusahaan Belanda. Bursa efek semakin tidak aktif.

8) 10 Agustus 1977: Bursa efek diresmikan kembali oleh Presiden Soeharto. BEJ dijalankan dibawah Bapepam (Badan Pelaksana Pasar Modal). Tanggal 10 Agustus diperingati sebagai HUT Pasar Modal. Pengaktifan kembali pasar modal juga ditandai dengan go public PT Semen Cibinong sebagai emiten pertama.

9) 1977-1987: Perdagangan di bursa efek sangat lesu. Jumlah emiten hingga 1987 baru mencapai 24. Masyarakat lebih memilih instrumen perbankan dibandingkan instrumen pasar modal.

10) 1987: Ditandai dengan hadirnya Paket Desember 1987 (PAKDES 87) yang memberikan kemudahan bagi perusahaan untuk melakukan penawaran umum dan investor asing menanamkan modal di Indonesia.

11) 1988-1990: Paket deregulasi dibidang perbankan dan pasar modal diluncurkan. Pintu BEJ terbuka untuk asing. Aktivitas bursa terlihat meningkat.

12) 2 Juni 1988: Bursa Paralel Indonesia (BPI) mulai beroperasi dan dikelola oleh Persatuan Perdagangan Uang dan Efek (PPUE), sedangkan organisasinya terdiri atas broker dan dealer.

13)Desember 1988: Pemerintah mengeluarkan Paket Desember 1988 (PAKDES 88)  yang memberikan kemudahan perusahaan untuk go public dan beberapa kebijakan lain yang positif bagi pertumbuhan pasar modal.

14) 16 Juni 1989: Bursa Efek Surabaya (BES) mulai beroperasi dan dikelola oleh perseroan terbatas milik swasta, yaitu PT Bursa Efek Surabaya.

15) 13 Juli 1992: Swastanisasi BEJ; Bapepam berubah menjadi Badan Pengawas Pasar Modal. Tanggal ini diperingati sebagai HUT BEJ.

16) 22 Mei 1995: Sistem Otomasi perdagangan di BEJ dilaksanakan dengan sistem komputer Jakarta Automated Trading Systems (JATS).

17) 10 November 1995: Pemerintah mengeluarkan UU No. 8 tahun 1995 tentang Pasar Modal. UU ini diberlakukan mulai Januari 1996.

18)  1995: Bursa Paralel Indonesia merger dengan Bursa Efek Surabaya.

19)  3 Juli 1997: lahir danareksa syariah oleh PT Danareksa Invesment Management.

20) 2000: Bursa Efek Indonesia bekerja sama dengan PT Danareksa Investment Management meluncurkan Jakarta Islamic Index yang bertujuan untuk memandu investor yang ingin menanamkan dananya secara syariah.

21)  2002: BEJ mulai mengaplikasikan system perdagangan jarak jauh (remote tranding).

22) 4 Maret 2003: Pasar modal syariah diresmikan oleh Menteri Keuangan Boediono didampingi ketua Bapepam Herwidayatmo, wakil dari MUI, wakil dari DSN pada direksi, direksi peruahaan efek, pengurus organisasi pelaku dan asosiasi profesi di pasar modal.

23) 2007: Penggabungan BEJ dan BES berdasarkan kesepakatan RUPSLB pada tanggal 30 Oktober 2007 yang kemudian dituangkan dalam Akta Penggabungan dan berganti nama menjadi PT Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI) yang resmi beroperasi sejak tanggal 1 November 2007.

Berdasarkan data diatas, meskipun secara resmi pasar modal syariah diluncurkan pada tahun 2003, instrument pasar modal syariah telah hadir di Indonesia pada tahun 1997. Hal ini ditandai dengan peluncuran Danareksa Syariah pada 3 Juli 1997 oleh PT Danareksa Investment Management. Selanjutnya, Bursa Efek Indonesia bekerja sama dengan PT Danareksa Investment Management meluncurkan Jakarta Islamic Index pada tanggal 3 Juli 2000 yang bertujuan memandu investor yang ingin menanamkan dananya secara syariah.[7]

4. Instrumen Pasar Modal Syariah

Instrumen pasar modal pada prinsipnya adalah semua surat berharga (efek) yang umum diperjualbelikan melalui pasar modal. Efek adalah setiap surat pengakuan utang, surat berharga komersial, saham, obligasi, sekuritas, kredit, tanda bukti utang, right, warrans, opsi, atau setiap derivative dari efek atau setiap instrumen yang ditetapkan oleh Bapepam LK sebagai efek. Adapun pasar modal syariah syariah secara khusus memperjualbelikan efek syariah. Efek syariah adalah efek yang akad, pengelolaan perusahaan dan cara penerbitannya memenuhi prinsip-prinsip syariah yang didasarkan atas ajaran Islam, yang penetapannya dilakukan oleh DSN-MUI dalam bentuk fatwa. Adapun instrumen pasar modal di Indonesia yaitu:

  1. Saham Syariah

Saham atau stocks adalah surat bukti atau tanda kepemilikan bagian modal di perusahaan terbatas. Kepemilikan saham menjadi bukti bahwa yang bersangkuran adalah bagian dari pemilik perusahaan.Semakin besar saham yang dimilikinya, semakin besar pula kekuasaannya diperusahaan tersebut. Keuntungan yang diperoleh dari saham dikenal dengan namadeviden. Pembagian deviden ditetapkan pada penutupan laporan keuangan berdasarkan RUPS yang menentukan berapa dividen yang dibagi dan laba ditahan.

Adapun saham syariah adalah sertifikat yang menunjukkan bukti kepemilikan perusahaan yang diterbitkan oleh emiten yang kegiatan usaha dan cara pengelolaannya tidak bertentangan dengan prinsip syariah. Saham merupakan surat berharga yang mempresentasikan penyertaan modal ke dalam suatu perusahaan. Sementara dalam prinsip syariahpenyertaan modal dilakukan di perusahaan-perusahaan yang tidak melanggar prinsip-prinsip syariah, seperti bidang perjudian, riba, memproduksi barang yang diharamkan, seperti minuman beralkohol. Penyertaan modal dalam bentuk saham yang dilakukan pada suatu perusahaan yang kegiatan usahanya tidak  bertentangandengan prinsip syariah dapat dilakukan berdasarkan akad musyarakah dan mudharabah. Akadmusyarakah umumnya dilakukan pada saham perusahaan privat, sedangkan akadmudharabah umumnya dilakukan pada perusahaan publik.

  1. Obligasi Syariah (Sukuk)

Obligasi atau bonds secara konvensional merupakan bukti utang dari emiten yang dijamin oleh penanggung yang mengandung janji bahwa pembayaran bunga atau janji lainnya dan pelunasan pokok pinjaman dilakukan pada tanggal jatuh tempo.

Adapun obligasi syariah sesuai dengan Fatwa Dewan Syariah Nasional No. 32/DSN-MUI/IX/2002 adalah suatu surat berharga jangka panjang berdasarkan prinsip syariah yang dikeluarkan emiten kepada pemegng saham syariah yang mewajibkan emiten untuk membayar pendapatan kepada pemegang obligasi syariah berupa bagi hasil/ margin/ fee, serta membayar kembali dana obligasi pada saat jatuh tempo. Dengan demikian, pemegang obligasi syariah akan mendapatkan keuntungan bukan dalam bentuk bunga melainkan dalam bentuk bagi hasil/ margin/ fee.

  1. Surat Berharga Syariah Negara (SBSN)

Surat Berharga Syariah Negara (SBSN) dapat disebut sukuk negara adalah surat berharga negara yang diterbitkan berdasarkan prinsip syariah, sebagai bukti atas bagian penyertaan terhadap asset SBSN, baik dalam mata uang rupiah maupun valuta asing.SBSN memiliki karakteristik yaitu:

  1. Sebagai bukti kepemilikan asset berwujud atau hak manfaat (beneficial title), pendapatan berupa imbalan (kupon), margin, dan bagi hasil sesuai jenis akad yang digunakan.
  2. Terbebas dari unsure riba, gharar, dan maysir.
  3. Penerbitannya melalui wali amanat berupa special purpose vehicle (SPV).
  4. Memerlukan underlying asset (sejumlah tertentu aset yang akan menjadi objek perjanjian (underlying asset)). Aset yang menjadi objek perjanjian harus memiliki nilai ekonomis, dapat berupa asset berwujud atau tidak berwujud, termasuk proyek yang akan sedang dibangun.
  5. Penggunaan proceeds harus sesuai prinsip syariah.

        Sedangkan, tujuan dari diterbitkannya sukuk Negara yaitu:

  1. Memperluas basis sumber pembiayaan anggaran Negara.
  2. Mendorong pengembangan pasar keuangan syariah.
  3. Menciptakan benchmark di pasar keuangan syariah.
  4. Diversifikasi basis investor.
  5. Mengembangkan alternative instrumen investasi.
  6. Mengoptimalkan pemanfaatan Barang Milik Negara.
  7. Memanfaatkan dana-dana masyarakat yang belum terjaring oleh sistem keuangan konvensional.
  8. Reksadana Syariah

Reksadana syariah adalah reksadana yang beroperasi menurut ketentuan dan prinsip syariat Islam, baik dalam bentuk akad antara pemodal sebagai pemilik harta (shahib al-mal/ rabb al-mal) dengan manajer investasi. Begitu pula pengelolaan dana investasi sebagai wakil shahib al-mal maupun antara manajer investasi sebagai wakil shahib al-maldengan pengguna investasi.

  1. Efek Beragun Aset Syariah

Efek beragun asset syariah adalah efek yang diterbitkan oleh kontrak investasi kolektif EBA Syariah yang portofolionya terdiri atas aset keuangan berupa tagihan yang timbul dari surat berharga komersial, tagihan yang timbul pada kemudian hari, jual beli pemilikan asset fisik oleh lembaga keuangan, efek bersifat investasi yang dijamin oleh pemerintah, sarana peningkatan investasi/ arus kas serta asset keuangan setara yang sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip syariah.

  1. Warran Syariah

Fatwa DSN-MUI Nomor: 66/ DSN-MUI/ III/ 2008 tentang Warran Syariahpada tanggal 6 Maret 2008 memastikan  bahwa kehalalan investasi di pasar modal tidak hanya berhenti pada instrumen efek yang bernama saham saja, tetapi juga pada produk derivatifnya. Produk turunan saham (derivatif) yang dinilai sesuai dengan criteria DSN adalah warran. Berdasarkan fatwa pengalihan saham dengan imbalan (warran), seorang pemegang saham diperbolehkan untuk mengalihkan kepemilikan sahamnya kepada orang lain dengan mendapat imbalan.

Mekanisme warran bersifat opsional, yaitu warran merupakan hak untuk membeli sebuah saham pada harga yang telah ditetapkan dengan waktu yang telah ditetapkan pula.  Misalnya, warran saham ABCD jatuh tempo pada November 2010, dengan exercise priceRp 1000,-. Artinya, jika investor memiliki warran saham ABCD, dia berhak untuk membeli satu saham ABCD itu pada bulan November 2010 pada harga Rp 1000,-. Warran sebelum jatuh tempo bisa diperdagangkan.Hasil penjualan warran tersebut merupakan keuntungan bagi investor yang memilikinya.[8]

5. Pihak-Pihak yang Terlibat Di Pasar Modal Syariah

Terdapat sejumlah pihak yang terlibat dan berperan dalam aktivitas penerbitan dan transaksi produk syariah di pasar modal Indonesia baik di pasar perdana maupun di pasar reguler. Pihak-pihak tersebut yaitu:

  1. Para pelaku di pasar modal

Para pelaku di pasar modal yaitu emiten dan investor. Emiten adalah pihak yang melakukan penawaran umum dalam rangka menjaring dana lewat penerbitan efek berbasis utang maupun penyertaan bagi kegiatan usaha perusahaan atau pengembangan usaha perusahaan.

2. Lembaga penunjang pasar modal

Lembaga penunjang di pasar modal antara lain:

  1. Bank Kustodian yaitu pihak yang memberikan jasa penitipan efek dan harta lain yang berkaitan dengan efek serta jasa lain, termasuk menerima dividen, bagi hasil, dan hak-hak lain, menyelesaikan transaksi efek dan mewakili pemegang rekening yang menjadi nasabahnya. Bank custodian yang telah memperoleh rekomendasi DSN-MUI untuk memberikan layanan syariah berjumlah tujuh bank, yang meliputi Bank Bukopin, Bank HSBC, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Permata, Citibank NA, Deutsche Bank, dan Standard Chartered Bank.
  2. Biro Administrasi Efek yaitu pihak yang berdasarkan kontrak dengan emiten melaksanakan pencatatan pemilikan efek dan pembagian hak yang berkaitan dengan efek.
  3. Wali Amanat yaitu pihak yang dipercayai untuk mewakili kepentingan seluruh pemegang obligasi atau sekuritas utang. Wali amanat syariah yang telah terdaftar di Bapepam dan LK berjumlah satu wali amanat yaitu PT Bank BRI Syariah (Persero) yang sampai saat ini belum melakukan kegiatan perwaliamanatan sukuk.
  4. Pemeringkat Efek yaitu pihak yang melakukan peringkat/ ranking atas efek yang bersifat utang seperti obligasi.
  5. Perusahaan Efek yaitu pihak yang melakukan kegiatan usaha sebagai penjamin emisi efek, perantara pedagang efek, dan manajer investasi. Kegiatan perusahaan efek dilakukan oleh wakil perusahaan efek yang terdiri dari wakil penjamin emisi efek, wakil perantara perdagangan efek dan wakil manajer investasi.[9]

6. Manfaat, Peran dan Fungsi Pasar Modal Syariah

  1. Manfaat pasar modal syariah

Pasar modal memungkinkan percepatan pertumbuhan ekonomi dengan memberikan kesempatan bagi perusahaan untuk dapat memanfaatkan dana langsung dari masyarakat tanpa harus menunggu tersedianya dana dari operasi perusahaan.Ada beberapa manfaat pasar modal antara lain:

  1. Menyediakan sumber pembiayaan(jangka panjang)bagi dunia  usaha.
  2. Memberikansarana invertasi bagi investor.
  3. Penyebarankepemilikan perusahaan sampai lapisan masyarakat menengah.
  4. Penyebaran kepemilikan,keterbukaan,dan profesionalisme,menciptakan iklim berusaha yang sehat.
  5. Menciptakanlapangan kerja atau profesi yang menarik.
  6. Memberikan kesempatan memiliki perusahaan yang sehat dan mempunyai prospek.
  7. Alternatifinvestasi yang memberikan potensi keuntungan dengan risiko yang bisa di perhitungkan melalui keterbukaan,likuiditas,dan diversifikasi investasi.
  8. Membina iklim keterbukaan bagi dunia usaha,memberikan akses kontrol sosial.[10]
  9. Peran dan fungsi pasar modal syariah

Pasar modal sangat berperan penting dalam meningkatkan efisiensi sistem keuangan dan merupakan salah satu lembaga intermediasi keuanagn yang vital dalam perekonomian modern. Alasan kehadiran pasar modal dalam suatu sistem keuangan, yaitu kemampuannya dalam memindahkan dana dari unit yang kelebihan dana kepada unit yang kekurangan dana dalam suatu perekonomiaan.

Secara teoritis pasar modal menjalankan dua fungsi simultan, yaitu fungsi intermediasi ekonomi dan fungsi keuangan. Fungsi intermediasi ekonomi pasar modal dijalankan dengan mewujudkan pertemuan pihak yang memiliki kelebihan dana dengan pihak yang memerlukan dana. Adapun fungsi keuangan pasar modal dilaksanakn dengan memberikan kemungkinan dan kesempatan untuk memperoleh imbalan bagi pemilik dana melalui investasi. Kedua fungsi pasar modal ini penting dalam memobilitasi tabungan ke dalam investasi dan membantu mencapai kemungkinan terbaik dalam penggunaan sumber daya ekonomi.

Peranan mendasar pasar modal secara umum bagi perekonomian antara lain:

  1. Memberikan kesempatan bagi penabung untuk berpartisipasi secara penuh dalam usaha bisnis.
  2. Memungkinkan pemegang saham dan obligasi memperoleh likuiditas dengan menjual saham dan obligasi mereka di pasar sekunder.
  3. Memberikan kesempatan bagi pengusaha untuk menghimpun dana eksternal untuk kebutuhan ekspansi aktivitas ekonomi dan perusahaan mereka.
  4. Memberikan kesempatan bagi pengusaha memisahkan operasi bisnis dan ekonomi dengan aktivitas keuangan.

Selain itu, pasar modal yang efisien diharapkan melaksanakan berbagai fungsi antara lain:

  1. Menyajikan mekanisme mobilisasi sumber daya yang mengarah kepada alokasi sumber daya keuangan yang efisien dalam ekonomi.
  2. Menyediakan likuiditas dalam pasar dengan harga paling murah, yaitu berbiaya transaksi paling rendah atau penawaran rendah menyebar pada sekuritas yang diperdagangkan di pasar.
  3. Untuk memastikan transparansi dalam penentuan harga sekuritas dengan menentukan harga premi risiko, yang merefleksikan tingkat risiko sekuritas tersebut.
  4. Menyediakan peluang menyusun portofolio yang terdiversifikasi dengan baik dan untuk mengurangi level risiko melalui diversifikasi lintas batas geografis dan waktu.[11]

BAB III

PENUTUP

1.Kesimpulan

Pasar modal syariah merupakan pasar modal yang diharapkan mampu menjalankan fungsi yang sama dengan pasar modal konvensional, namun dengan kekhususan syariahnya yaitu mencerminkan keadilan dan pemerataan distribusi keuntungan.

Secara resmi pasar modal syariah diluncurkan pada tahun 2003, instrument pasar modal syariah telah hadir di Indonesia pada tahun 1997. Hal ini ditandai dengan peluncuran Danareksa Syariah pada 3 Juli 1997 oleh PT Danareksa Investment Management. Selanjutnya, Bursa Efek Indonesia bekerja sama dengan PT Danareksa Investment Management meluncurkan Jakarta Islamic Index pada tanggal 3 Juli 2000 yang bertujuan memandu investor yang ingin menanamkan dananya secara syariah.

Instrumen pasar modal pada prinsipnya adalah semua surat berharga (efek) yang umum diperjualbelikan melalui pasar modal. Adapun instrumen pasar modal di Indonesia yaitu: Saham Syariah, Obligasi Syariah (Sukuk), Surat Berharga Syariah Negara (SBSN), Reksada Syariah, Efek Beragun Aset Syariah, Warran Syariah.

Pihak-Pihak yang Terlibat Di Pasar Modal Syariah yang terdiri dari; Para pelaku di pasar modal yaitu emiten dan investor. Dan lembaga penunjang pasar modal yaitu Bank Kustodian, Biro Administrasi Efek, Wali Amanat, Pemeringkat Efek, dan Perusahaan Efek.

Manfaat pasar modal antara lain: Menyediakan sumber pembiayaan (jangka panjang) bagi dunia  usaha, memberikan sarana invertasi bagi investor, penyebaran kepemilikan perusahaan sampai lapisan masyarakat menengah,penyebaran kepemilikan, keterbukaan, dan profesionalisme, menciptakan iklim berusaha yang sehat, menciptakan lapangan kerja atau profesi yang menarik,memberikan kesempatan memiliki perusahaan yang sehat dan mempunyai prospek, alternatif investasi yang memberikan potensi keuntungan dengan risiko yang bisa di perhitungkan melalui keterbukaan, likuiditas, dan diversifikasi investasi,membina iklim keterbukaan bagi dunia usaha,memberikan akses kontrol sosial.

Peranan mendasar pasar modal secara umum bagi perekonomian antara lain: memberikan kesempatan bagi penabung untuk berpartisipasi secara penuh dalam usaha bisnis, memungkinkan pemegang saham dan obligasi memperoleh likuiditas dengan menjual saham dan obligasi mereka di pasar sekunder, memberikan kesempatan bagi pengusaha untuk menghimpun dana eksternal untuk kebutuhan ekspansi aktivitas ekonomi dan perusahaan mereka, memberikan kesempatan bagi pengusaha memisahkan operasi bisnis dan ekonomi dengan aktivitas keuangan.

Pasar modal yang efisien diharapkan melaksanakan berbagai fungsi antara lain: menyajikan mekanisme mobilisasi sumber daya yang mengarah kepada alokasi sumber daya keuangan yang efisien dalam ekonomi, menyediakan likuiditas dalam pasar dengan harga paling murah, yaitu berbiaya transaksi paling rendah atau penawaran rendah menyebar pada sekuritas yang diperdagangkan di pasar, untuk memastikan transparansi dalam penentuan harga sekuritas dengan menentukan harga premi risiko, yang merefleksikan tingkat risiko sekuritas tersebut, menyediakan peluang menyusun portofolio yang terdiversifikasi dengan baik dan untuk mengurangi level risiko melalui diversifikasi lintas batas geografis dan waktu.

2. Saran

Demikin makalah yang dapat kami susun.Apabila  ada kesalahan dalam menyusun makalah kami mohon ma’af. Kritik dan saran sangat kami butuhkan agar kami dapat menyusun makalah lebih baik.Harapan kami, semoga makalah ini bermanfaat bagi pembaca, Aamiin.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

  • Andri Soemitra, Masa Depan Pasar Modal Syariah Di Indonesia, Kencana, Jakarta, 2014.
  • Kasmir, Bank dan Lembaga Keuangan lainnya, PT. RajaGrafindo Persada, Jakarta, 2002.
  • Khaerul Umam,  Pasar Modal Syariah & Praktik Pasar Modal Syariah, Pustaka Setia, Bandung, 2013.
  • Mustafa Edwin Nasution, Pengenalan Eksklusif Ekonomi Islam, Kencana, Jakarta, 2006.
  1. Nur Rianto Al Arif, Lembaga Keuangan Syariah: Suatu Kajian Teoritis Praktik, Pustaka Setia, Bandung, 2012.
  • Ida Musdafia Ibrahim, Economic Jurnal Ekonomi dan Hukum Islam, Vol 3, No. 2, STIE YAI Jakarta, 2013
  • [2]Kasmir, Bank dan Lembaga Keuangan lainnya, PT. RajaGrafindo Persada, Jakarta, 2002, hlm. 193.
  • [3] Mustafa Edwin Nasution, Pengenalan Eksklusif Ekonomi Islam, Kencana, Jakarta, 2006, hlm. 302.
  • [4] Andri Soemitra, Masa Depan Pasar Modal Syariah Di Indonesia, Kencana, Jakarta, 2014, hlm. 84.
  • [5] Ida Musdafia Ibrahim, Economic Jurnal Ekonomi dan Hukum Islam, Vol 3, No. 2, STIE YAI Jakarta, 2013, hlm. 7-9.
  • [6] Khaerul Umam,  Pasar Modal Syariah & Praktik Pasar Modal Syariah, Pustaka Setia, Bandung, 2013, hlm. 94-95.
  • [7] M. Nur Rianto Al Arif, Lembaga Keuangan Syariah: Suatu Kajian Teoritis Praktik, Pustaka Setia, Bandung, 2012, hlm. 348-350.
  • [8]Ibid., hlm. 351- 371.
  • [9]Andi Soemitra, Op. Cit., hlm. 255-260.
  • [10]M. Nur Rianto Al Arif, Op.Cit., hlm. 346-347.
  • [11]Andi Soemitra, Op. Cit., hlm. 87-89.

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